The Ubuntu Beginner’s Guide – A very good book for intermediate beginners (and up) – #ubuntu #linux #bookreview

The Ubuntu Beginner’s Guide

Sixth Edition

Jonathan Moeller

(Azure Flame Media, LLC – Kindle)

This should not be your first book on how to use Ubuntu, particularly if you consider yourself not much of a computer geek and you are fleeing Microsoft Windows to escape the death throes of XP (or the life throes of Windows 8).

However, The Ubuntu Beginner’s Guide is an excellent how-to book that can add to your enjoyment and mastery of Ubuntu once you are comfortable with opening applications, downloading the latest updates, and doing some basic work at the command line in Linux. In other words, once you are ready to learn more about what else you can do with a PC running Ubuntu (besides typing on it and surfing the web), The Ubuntu Beginner’s Guide definitely can help. (It focuses on Ubuntu version 12.04 — not the latest, but still a good release that will be supported for a few more years.)

Jonathan Moeller spends much of his book showing how to set up an Ubuntu PC as a server platform, for example an Apache web server, a MySQL server, a DHCP server, and an FTP Client and Server, among others. His instructions are clear, and you don’t have to flip from one chapter to another to keep track of all of the steps. He repeats setup steps when necessary to help the reader stay focused on doing a task from start to finish. (I am definitely not a Linux guru, but I have used Moeller’s book thus far to assign some static IPs, set up SAMBA file sharing, set up an Apache web server, and do several other tasks that I’ve wanted to learn. Some reviewers have criticized the author for repeating certain steps for each process. But I appreciate the convenience of staying focused on just one or two pages at a time.)

Meanwhile, later chapters focus on web applications and “the eight best applications for a new Ubuntu desktop installation.” (No spoilers are given here.)

“Hosting web applications,” Moeller writes, “is where Linux really shines….Ubuntu Linux can run a variety of web applications, ranging from simple interactive sites to powerful content management systems.” In his book, he shows “how to install three of the most popular content management systems on an Ubuntu web server — WordPress, MediaWiki, and Drupal” — and explains what a LAMP server is. “LAMP is simply an acronym for Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP (or Perl and Python).”

The author covers several other useful topics, including how to create a bootable USB flash drive, how to run some Windows software on Ubuntu using the Wine application, and how to manage eBooks on Ubuntu. And he describes how to enjoy some computer games on Ubuntu, even though the “gaming experience” admittedly will not measure up to Windows machines, various mobile devices, or dedicated game consoles such as an XBox or Playstation.

If you have not yet tried Ubuntu and still wonder if you will like Linux or not, start with a book such as Ubuntu Made Easy, which comes with a CD that lets you try Ubuntu 12.04 without actually installing it. (And , if you do like it, you can use the same CD to install Ubuntu on your PC). Then, after you get comfortable with the basics and want to know more, get The Ubuntu Beginner’s Guide.

Si Dunn

Advertisements

Hands-on Testing with PHPUnit How-to – A short, well-focused guide – #programming #bookreview

Instant Hands-on Testing with PHPUnit How-to
A practical guide to getting started with PHPUnit to improve code quality
Michael Lively
(Packt Publishing – paperback, Kindle)

PHPUnit is considered by many to be the leading tool for testing PHP code. This “Short, Fast, Focused” book (82 pages digital, 69 pages in paperback) is a recent addition to Packt Publishing’s “Instant” series. It zeroes in on how to install and use PHPUnit to create and run “easy-to-maintain tests.”

One strength of Michael Lively’s new book is his experience with PHP and PHPUnit. Another strength is the book’s step-by-step structure. It rates each key step as “Simple”, “Intermediate”, or “Advanced” and provides subheadings such as “Getting ready…”, “How to do it…”, “How it works…”, and “There’s more…” to help keep descriptions short and clear.

Code examples and screenshots also help the reader get comfortable with running tests using the PHPUnit framework.

Aside from skipping commas in some of the text, Michael Lively’s writing is clear and concise, and his descriptions and code examples have been reviewed by two experienced software developers.

The book is “written for anyone who has an interest in unit testing but doesn’t necessarily know where to start in integrating it with their project,” Lively states.

“It will provide useful tips and insights into how PHPUnit can be used with your projects and it should give you enough information to whet your appetite for the various features offered by PHPUnit.”

The code examples in Lively’s book “were written using PHP 5.3.24 and PHPUnit 3.7. All code samples were verified against a Linux box with Ubuntu 12.04 LTS.”

As with several other Packt books recently reviewed, if you use a Windows PC or a Mac instead of a Linux system, you pretty much are left on your own to figure out the installation process and certain commands.

—   Si Dunn

Puppet 3 Beginner’s Guide – Automate configuration management & become a better system admin – #programming #bookreview

Puppet 3 Beginner’s Guide
John Arundel
(Packt Publishing – paperback, Kindle)

If you administer a small network built around just a few servers, you may still be doing at least some of the configuration management by hand. You literally move from machine to machine, manually entering updates, changes, or fixes. And your small network may be running several different brands–and vintages–of hardware and software, which complicates the update and repair process.

However, infrastructure consultant John Arundel warns, once you get “[b]eyond ten or so servers, there simply isn’t a choice. You can’t manage an infrastructure like this by hand. If you’re using a cloud computing architecture, where servers are created and destroyed minute-by-minute in response to changing demand, the artisan approach to server crafting just won’t work.”

In his new book, Puppet 3 Beginner’s Guide, Arundel emphasizes: “Manual configuration management is tedious and repetitive, it’s error-prone, and it doesn’t scale well. Puppet is a tool for automating this process.”

Among “UNIX-like systems,” there are at least three major configuration management (CM) packages, including Puppet. The others are Chef and CFEngine, plus a few more competitors. Arundel calls them “all great solutions to the CM problem…it’s not very important which one you choose as long as you choose one.” But he hopes, of course, you will favor Puppet and his well-written how-to guide.

Puppet 3 Beginner’s Guide is structured to help system administrators “start from scratch…and learn how to fully utilize Puppet through simple, practical examples,” he writes.

He places important emphasis on the rapidly closing “divide between ‘devs,’ who wrangle code, and ‘ops,’ who wrangle configurations. Traditionally, the skills sets of the two groups haven’t overlapped much,” he notes. “It was common until recently for system administrators not to write complex programs, and for developers to have little or no experience of building and managing servers.”

Today, system admins are “facing the challenge of scaling systems to enormous size for the web, [and] have had to get smart about programming and automation.” Meanwhile, “[d]evelopers, who now often build applications, services, and businesses by themselves, couldn’t do what they do without knowing how to set up and fix servers,” he says.

Therefore, “[t]he term ‘devops’ has begun to be used to describe the growing overlap between these skill sets…Devops write code, herd servers, build apps, scale systems, analyze outages, and fix bugs. With the advent of CM systems, devs and ops are now all just people who work with code.”

Arundel’s 184-page Puppet 3 Beginner’s Guide offers 10 chapters smoothly structured with headings, short paragraphs, code examples, and other illustrations. He has generated his code examples using the Ubuntu 12.04 LTS “Precise” distribution of Linux. But he explains how to load the software using “Red Hat Linux, CentOS, or another Linux distribution that uses the Yum package system,” as well.

The chapters are:

  • Chapter 1, Introduction to Puppet
  • Chapter 2, First Steps with Puppet
  • Chapter 3, Packages, Files, and Services
  • Chapter 4, Managing Puppet with Git
  • Chapter 5, Managing Users
  • Chapter 6, Tasks and Templates
  • Chapter 7, Definitions and Classes
  • Chapter 8, Expressions and Logic
  • Chapter 9, Reporting and Troubleshooting
  • Chapter 10, Moving on Up

That final chapter covers a range of topics, including how to make Puppet code “more elegant, more readable, and more maintainable.” The author offers “links and suggestions for further reading.” And he describes several projects to help you “improve your skills and your infrastructure at the same time.” Those projects, he says, “provide a series of stepping-stones from your first use of Puppet to a completely automated environment.”

Besides Linux, Puppet will run on other several platforms, including Windows and Macs. But there is almost no help for those in Arundel’s book. Essentially, it’s Linux or bust. For other operating systems, you will need to refer to the Puppet Labs website.

It can take a bit of work to get Puppet installed and properly configured. But once you have Puppet running, the Puppet 3 Beginner’s Guide can help you become both a proficient Puppet user and a more efficient, knowledgeable, and versatile system administrator.

Si Dunn

Hadoop is hot! Three new how-to books for riding the Big Data elephant – #programming #bookreview

In the world of Big Data, Hadoop has become the hard-charging elephant in the room.

Its big-name users now span the alphabet and include such notables as Amazon, eBay, Facebook, Google, the New York Times, and Yahoo. Not bad for software named after a child’s toy elephant.

Computer systems that run Hadoop can store, process, and analyze large amounts of data that have been gathered up in many different formats from many different sources.

According to the Apache Software Foundation’s Hadoop website: “The Apache Hadoop software library is a framework that allows for the distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of computers using simple programming models. It is designed to scale up from single servers to thousands of machines, each offering local computation and storage.”

The (well-trained) user defines the Big Data problem that Hadoop will tackle. Then the software handles all aspects of the job completion, including spreading out the problem in small pieces to many different computers, or nodes, in the distributed system for more efficient processing. Hadoop also handles individual node failures, and collects and combines the calculated results from each node.

But you don’t need a collection of hundreds or thousands of computers to run Hadoop. You can learn it, write programs, and do some testing and debugging on a single Linux machine, Windows PC or Mac. The Open Source software can be downloaded here. (Do some research first. You may have use web searches to find detailed installation instructions for your specific system.)

Hadoop is open-source software that is often described as “a Java-based framework for large-scale data processing.” It has a lengthy learning curve that includes getting familiar with Java, if you don’t already know it.

But if you are now ready and eager to take on Hadoop, Packt Publishing recently has unveiled three excellent how-to books that can help you begin and extend your mastery: Hadoop Beginner’s Guide, Hadoop MapReduce Cookbook, and Hadoop Real-World Solutions Cookbook.

Short reviews of each are presented below.

Hadoop Beginner’s Guide
Garry Turkington
(Packt Publishing – paperback, Kindle)

Garry Turkington’s new book is a detailed, well-structured introduction to Hadoop. It covers everything from the software’s three modes–local standalone mode, pseudo-distributed mode, and fully distributed mode–to running basic jobs, developing simple and advanced MapReduce programs, maintaining clusters of computers, and working with Hive, MySQL, and other tools.

“The developer focuses on expressing the transformation between source and result data sets, and the Hadoop framework manages all aspects of job execution, parallelization, and coordination,” the author writes.

He calls this capability “possibly the most important aspect of Hadoop. The platform takes responsibility for every aspect of executing the processing across the data. After the user defines the key criteria for the job, everything else becomes the responsibility of the system.”

The 374-page book is written well and provides numerous code samples and illustrations. But it  has one drawback for some beginners who want to install and  use Hadoop.  Turkington offers step-by-step instructions for how to perform a Linux installation, specifically Ubuntu. However, he refers Windows and Mac users to an Apache site where there is insufficient how-to information. Web searches become necessary to find more installation details.

Hadoop MapReduce Cookbook
Srinath Perera and Thilina Gunarathne
(Packt Publishing – paperback, Kindle)

MapReduce “jobs” are an essential part of  how Hadoop is able to crunch huge chunks of Big Data.  The Hadoop MapReduce Cookbook offers “recipes for analyzing large and complex data sets with Hadoop MapReduce.”

MapReduce is a well-known programming model for processing large sets of data. Typically, MapReduce is used within clusters of computers that are configured to perform distributed computing.

In the “Map” portion of the process, a problem is split into many subtasks that are then assigned by a master computer to individual computers known as nodes. (Nodes also can have sub-nodes). During the “Reduce” part of the task, the master computer gathers up the processed data from the nodes, combines it and outputs a response to the problem that was posed to be solved. (MapReduce libraries are now available for many different computer languages, including Hadoop.)

“Hadoop is the most widely known and widely used implementation of the MapReduce paradigm,” the two authors note.

Their 284-page book initially shows how to run Hadoop in local mode, which “does not start any servers but does all the work within the same JVM [Java Virtual Machine]” on a standalone computer. Then, as you gain more experience with MapReduce and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), they guide you into using Hadoop in more complex, distributed-computing environments.

Echoing the Hadoop Beginner’s Guide, the authors explain how to install Hadoop on Linux machines only.

Hadoop Real-World Solutions Cookbook
Jonathan R. Owens, Jon Lentz and Brian Femiano
(Packt Publishing – paperback, Kindle)

The Hadoop Real-World Solutions Cookbook assumes you already have some experience with Hadoop. So it jumps straight into helping “developers become more comfortable with, and proficient at solving problems in, the Hadoop space.”

Its goal is to “teach readers how to build solutions using tools such as Apache Hive, Pig, MapReduce, Mahout, Giraph, HDFS, Accumulo, Redis, and Ganglia.”

The 299-page book is packed with code examples and short explanations that help solve specific types of problems. A few randomly selected problem headings:

  • “Using Apache Pig to filter bot traffic from web server logs.”
  • “Using the distributed cache in MapReduce.”
  • “Trim Outliers from the Audioscrobbler dataset using Pig and datafu.” 
  • “Designing a row key to store geographic events in Accumulo.”
  • “Enabling MapReduce jobs to skip bad records.”

The authors use a simple but effective strategy for presenting problems and solutions. First, the problem is clearly described. Then, under a “Getting Ready” heading, they spell out what you need to  solve the problem. That is followed by a “How to do it…” heading where each step is presented and supported by code examples. Then, paragraphs beneath a “How it works…” heading sum up and explain how the problem was solved. Finally, a “There’s more…” heading highlights more explanations and links to additional details.

If you are a Hadoop beginner, consider the first two books reviewed above. If you have some Hadoop experience, you likely can find some useful tips in book number three

Si Dunn

Make something new, with MakerBot or Raspberry Pi – #bookreview #programming #diy

O’Reilly has released two new books to help you get started with two hot new products: the MakerBot desktop 3D printer and the Raspberry Pi, a tiny, inexpensive computer the size of a credit card.

Here are short reviews of the two how-to guides:

Getting Started with MakerBot
Bre Pettis, Anna Kaziunas France & Jay Shergill
(O’Reilly –
paperback, Kindle)

The MakerBot 3D printer has captured worldwide attention for its ability to replicate objects such as game pieces, knobs and other plastic parts no longer available from manufacturers, and its use also to produce small art works.

“In our consumer-focused, disposable world, a MakerBot is a revitalizing force for all your broken things,” the authors state. (One of them, Bre Pettis, is one of MakerBot’s creators.)

The MakerBot machine, however, also can be a revitalizing force for artistic endeavors and, in some cases, dreams of self-employment. It is, after all, essentially a small factory in a box.

Getting Started with MakerBot introduces the machine and things you can make with it from your own designs or from designs downloaded from the web. “Though the underlying engineering principles behind a MakerBot are quite complex, in a nutshell, a MakerBot is a very precise, robotic hot glue gun mounted to a very precise, robotic positioning system,” the three writers point out.

In 213 pages, the book covers the basics, from history to set-up, and then shows you how to “print 10 useful objects right away.” It also introduces how to design your own 3D objects, using SketchUp, Autodesk 123D, OpenSCAD, and some other tools.

Getting Started with MakerBot is well-written, heavily illustrated, and organized to help you advance from unboxing a MakerBot to turning out products and creations and becoming a significant citizen of the “Thingiverse”—where “one must share designs…but all are welcome to reap the bounty of shared digital designs for physical objects.”

***

Getting Started with Raspberry Pi
Matt Richardson & Shawn Wallace
O’Reilly –
paperback, Kindle)

The Raspberry Pi “is meant as an educational tool to encourage kids to experiment with computers.” But many adults are latching to the tiny device as well, because it comes preloaded with interpreters and compilers for several programming languages, including Python, Scratch, C, Ruby, Java, and Perl. Its operating system is Linux Raspbian.

The Raspberry Pi is not plug-and-play, but it can be connected to – and control –a number of electronic devices. And the list of uses  for the microcomputer keeps growing.

Some owners have made their Raspberry Pi devices into game machines. Others have connected many of the units together to create low-budget supercomputers. Some are using them as web servers. And still others work at the  “bare metal” of a Raspberry Pi to create and test new operating systems. Intriguing new roles for the Raspberry Pi keep appearing, and the surge will continue as more adults and kids start working with the tiny but powerful device.

Getting Started with Raspberry Pi covers the basics of hooking up, programming and running the device. It also provides several starter projects, including how to use a Raspberry Pi as a web server or in other roles.

Once you know what you’re doing, “You can even create your own JSON API for an electronics project!” the authors promise.

The well-written book packs a lot of how-to information into its 160 pages, including working at the command line in Linux, learning to program the device, and creating simple games in Python and Scratch.

— Si Dunn

Programming C# 5.0 – Excellent how-to guide for experienced developers ready to learn C# – #bookreview

Programming C# 5.0
Ian Griffiths
(O’Reilly, paperbackKindle)

Ian Griffiths’ new book is for “experienced developers,” not for beginners hoping to learn the basics of programming while also learning C#. The focus is “Building Windows 8, Web, and Desktop Applications for the .NET 4.5 Framework.”

Earlier editions in the Programming C# series have “explained some basic concepts such as classes, polymorphism, and collections,” Griffiths notes. But C# also keeps growing in power and size, which means the page counts of its how-to manuals must keep growing, too, to cover “everything.”

The paperback version of Programming C# 5.0 weighs in at 861 pages and more than three pounds. So Griffiths’ choice to sharpen the book’s focus is a smart one. Beginners can learn the basics of programming in other books and other ways before digging into this edition. And experienced developers will find that the author’s explanations and code examples now have space to go “into rather more detail” than would have been possible if chapters explaining the basics of programming had been packed in, as well.

If you have done some programming and know a class from an array, this book can be your well-structured guide to learning C#. The “basics” are gone, but you still are shown how to create a “Hello World” program—primarily so you can see how new C# projects are created in Visual Studio, Microsoft’s development environment.

C# has been around since 2000 and “can be used for many kinds of applications, including websites, desktop applications, games, phone apps, and command-line utilities,” Griffiths says.

“The most significant new feature in C# 5.0,” he emphasizes, “is support for asynchronous programming.” He notes that “.NET has always offered asynchronous APIs (i.e., ones that do not wait for the operation they perform to finish before returning). Asynchrony is particularly important with input/output(I/O) operations, which can take a long time and often don’t require any active involvement from the CPU except at the start and end of an operation. Simple, synchronous APIs that do not return until the operation completes can be inefficient. They tie up a thread while waiting, which can cause suboptimal performance in servers, and they’re also unhelpful in client-side code, where they can make a user interface unresponsive.”

In the past, however, “the more efficient and flexible asynchronous APIs” have been “considerably harder to use than their synchronous counterparts. But now,” Griffiths points out, “if an asynchronous API conforms to a certain pattern, you can write C# code that looks almost as simple as the synchronous alternative would.”

If you are an experienced programmer hoping to add C# to your language skills, Ian Griffiths’ new book covers much of what you need to know, including how to use XAML (pronounced “zammel”) “to create  applications of the [touch-screen] style introduced by Windows 8” but also applications for desktop computers and Windows Phone.

Yes, Microsoft created C#, but there are other ways to run it, too, Griffiths adds.

“The open source Mono project (http://www.mono-project.com/) provides tools for building C# applications that run on Linux, Mac OS X, iOS, and Android.”

Si Dunn

For more information:  paperback – Kindle

Programming Google App Engine, 2nd Edition – An important how-to guide, updated – #programming #bookreview

Programming Google App Engine, 2nd Edition
Dan Sanderson
(O’Reilly,
paperbackKindle)

O’Reilly recently has published a new edition of Dan Sanderson’s Programing Google App Engine.  The new edition updates the 2009 first edition and includes coverage of Java 6 and Python 2.7 support, multithreading, asynchronous service APIs, and using frameworks such as webapp2 and Django 1.3. (“App Engine does not yet support Python 3,” Sanderson notes.)

The 509-page, 20-chapter book shows how “to develop applications that run on Google App Engine, and how to get the most out of the scalable model. A significant portion of the book discusses the App Engine scalable datastore, which does not behave like the relational databases that have been a staple of web development for the past decade,” the author states.

Sanderson is a technical writer and software engineer at Google, Inc. His new edition is well-written and appropriately illustrated with code samples, diagrams, screen shots and other graphics.

With clear steps and good detail, the book shows you first how to install and use the Python or Java SDKs on Mac OS X, Linux, and Windows machines and how to develop simple Python and Java applications. From there, it expands deeper into the how-to aspects of programming the Google App Engine.

In some chapters, the Python and Java options are presented together. Python’s and Java’s data modeling libraries, however, are discussed in separate chapters.

“Google App Engine, Google’s application hosting service, does more than just provide access to hardware,” Sanderson points out.

“It provides a model for building applications that grow automatically. App Engine runs your application so that each user to accesses it gets the same experience as every other user, whether there are dozens of simultaneous users or thousands. The application uses the same large-scale services that power Google’s applications for data storage and retrieval, caching, and network access. App Engine takes care of the tasks of large-scale computing, such as load balancing, data replication, and fault tolerance, automatically.”

Programming Google App Engine, 2nd Edition can take you from asking “What is Google App Engine?” to well down the road toward becoming an App Engine expert.

Si Dunn

For more information: paperbackKindle