NODE.js IN PRACTICE – A well-focused guide to understanding & using this powerful web development platform – #programming #bookreview

 

Node.js in Practice

Alex Young and Marc Harter

Manning – paperback

I have had a long-term, love-ignore relationship with Node.js. I have taken Node classes, read Node books, and tinkered with Node programming both on Windows and Linux machines. Sometimes I have loved working with Node.js. Other times, I have ignored it for months at a stretch while I rush around trying out other choices and development distractions: Clojure, Erlang, Grails, Hadoop, and Ember.js, for example — the list goes on and on.

Node.js in Practice is aimed at intermediate Node.js programmers and even advanced Node.js programmers. There is some awareness that beginners also may be reading this book. So the authors start by explaining Node from the standpoint of “what it is, how it works, and why it’s something you can’t live without.” Then they quickly recommend that Node newcomers should stop for now and read another good, but more basic, how-to book first: Node.js in Action.

In Node.js in Practice, the learning curve can start getting steep fairly quickly, especially for those of us who have worked somewhat superficially with Node in web projects that also involve other software (such as the MEAN stack: MongoDB, Express and AngularJS, plus Node). Fortunately, the authors, Alex Young and Marc Harter, take a very focused, three-part approach that keeps Node.js centered in the spotlight and promotes deeper understanding.

Part One focuses on “Node’s core fundamentals” and “what’s possible using only Node’s core modules (no third-party modules).” Part Two moves into “real-world development recipes” and shows how to “master four highly applicable skills—testing, web development, debugging, and running Node in production.” Some third-party modules also are introduced. Part Three, meanwhile, emphasizes “creating your own Node modules in a straightforward manner that ties in all kinds of ways to use npm commands for packaging, running, testing, benchmarking, and sharing modules. It also includes helpful tips on versioning projects effectively.”

The book offers “115 techniques…each module covering a specific Node.js topic or task, and each divided into practical Problem/Solution/Discussion sections.” I really like this approach, and the illustrated discussions that accompany each short code example are especially helpful.

For me, it has been a pleasure to upgrade to the latest version of Node.js and reconnect with it using this new book. Despite my previous experience with Node.js, I see a lot to learn! My thanks to Manning for providing a review copy of Node.js in Practice.

 

THE RESPONSIVE WEB: A ‘mobile-first’ guide to creating websites effective for all devices – #bookreview

The Responsive Web

Matthew Carver

(Manning – paperback)

While devices for viewing websites keep getting smaller–web-enabled watches are a recent example–the challenges get bigger and tougher for website designers and developers. How do you create websites that effectively adjust to the size of the devices where they are being viewed, while also delivering essential information and links to the viewers?

“Responsive web design,” Matthew Carver writes in his excellent new book, “is a technique of designing websites that scale for various browsers, including mobile, tablet, and desktop. It’s made possible through CSS3 Media queries and offers developers the opportunity to design a site once for multiple devices. While the technique is seemingly simple, the practice itself involves several challenges.”

Carver’s book, The Responsive Web, goes well beyond simply showing and explaining a few web page templates. With clear text and excellent illustrations, the author offers numerous practical techniques and tips, and he provides the reasoning behind their importance, without wandering too deeply into web-design and user-experience theory.

This superior how-to book reflects Carver’s real-world experience as “an early adopter of responsive web design.” As a front-end designer, web developer and consultant, his clients have included such notables as American Airlines, the Dallas Morning News, Chobani, Home Depot, and Google.

The Responsive Web is divided into three parts, with a total of nine chapters.

Starting at Part One: The Responsive Way, Carver definitely does not dawdle. In the very first chapter, we are offered “all the basic information you need to get started with responsive web design.” Chapter 2, meanwhile, covers a key concept in Carver’s approach: “designing for mobile first” when creating responsive websites.

Part Two: Designing for the Responsive Web has four chapters built around “what goes into responsive web design from the visual designer’s and user-experience (UX) designer’s perspectives,” Carver writes, “but don’t think this information won’t apply to developers. There’s important stuff in here for everyone, and as this book teaches, web design requires collaboration.”

In Part Three: Expanding the Design with Code, the three final chapters cover some of the grittier details of responsive web design, including creating an effective page with HTML5 and CSS3, working with graphics, and using “progressive enhancement.” Carver notes: “With progressive enhancement you can create websites so that they function well in a variety of platforms, each with their own limitations and specifications.” And finally, he does not skip “testing and optimization.” The book’s final chapter is devoted to “the nitty gritty of optimizing your website for performance on every screen.”

In an intriguing appendix, Carver also discusses the processes and possibilities of introducing certain degrees of context awareness to websites. “What if, instead of resizing the design to adapt to the user’s device, you could also format parts of the site based on factors like location, time of day, the user’s history on the site, or the user’s activity level,” he points out. “Theoretically, all of this data is accessible to the design of a page and could be used to greatly enhance the user’s experience.”

Bottom line,  this is a very timely and useful guide for those who work with websites, as well as for those who manage web designers and developers.

Si Dunn

 

Instant Handlebars.js – A short but effective how-to guide – #programming #bookreview

Instant Handlebars.js

Learn how to create and implement HTML templates into your projects using the Handlebars library
Gabriel Manricks
(Packt Publishing – e-book, paperback)

“Short, fast, and focused.” These are the three promises offered for Gabriel Manricks’ new book, Instant Handlebars.js, from Packt Publishing. And, at just 62 pages in print format, it lives up to those vows.

Manricks explains and demonstrates Handlebars using five well-structured sections. First, he introduces Handlebars.js and describes what a templating engine is and does. He notes that “[t]he purpose of using a templating engine such as Handlebars is to generate some kind of viewable content (usually HTML pages), dynamically.” He then shows how to download the Handlebars library and create a “Hello {{name}}” template and a simple helper.

His “Top 6 Features you need to know about” section goes to the heart of Handlebars.js and shows how you can organize large projects and pre-compile templates.

The Top 6 topics include: (1) Expressions—“the core of templates”; (2) Helpers—“[t]hese are where Handlebars gets its extendibility”; (3) Partials—“the building blocks of the template world” and important for modular design; (4) Structuring a Handlebars app—the pros and cons of various potential structures; (5) Pre-compilation—which can lead to “a more optimized and efficient site”; and (6) Logging and comments—“writing clear and debug-able templates and helpers, so you can easily test and maintain them in the future.”

In the book’s final section, “People and places you should get to know,” Manricks describes some individuals and websites you should follow so you can “stay up to date and dive deeper into the Handlebars community.”

Despite its small page count, the book contains numerous short code examples that show how to put Handlebars.js to work in HTML files.

You need at least some modest experience with JavaScript and HTML to get full benefit from this book. You also will make brief use of Node.js to install Handlebars.js.

If you have done any work with Ember.js, you already have picked up some Handlebars.js experience. However, even here, this short, handy guide can help you get a better understanding of how to use Handlebars, with or without Ember.

Instant Handlebars.js can be ordered in e-book or paperback format direct from Packt Publishing’s website. Or, the Kindle version and the paperback can be ordered via Amazon.

Si Dunn

Functional JavaScript – Applying functional techniques and Underscore.js – #programming #bookreview

Functional JavaScript
Introducing Functional Programming with Underscore.js
Michael Fogus
(O’Reilly – paperback, Kindle)

When I first started tinkering with JavaScript, object-oriented programming (OOP) was the rage, and JavaScript frequently was touted as one of the key object-oriented languages. After all, according to many online descriptions, almost everything within JavaScript “is OO.”

Now, in this enjoyable new book, JavaScript is hailed as a functional programming language. Of course, functional programming recently has been the rage in many programming circles. And “enjoyable” may seem an odd word to attach to a software text. Yet, it fits. Michael Fogus shows here that he is a technical writer who can be entertaining, effective and well-organized.

“This book,” he states, “is not about spewing dogma regarding the virtues of functional programming. I think there are many functional techniques that offer ways to rein in the complexities of software development, but I realize that at times, there are better ways to implement any given individual part.”

It is possible, of course, to debate object-oriented vs. functional JavaScript until the digital cows are called back home and put into infinite loops. But, for those who don’t know or care much about the differences, here are some basic views.

The Mozilla Developers Network (to simply pick  one example) discusses objected-oriented JavaScript on its site and declares: “Object-oriented programming may be seen as the design of software using a collection of cooperating objects, as opposed to a traditional view in which a program may be seen as a collection of functions, or simply as a list of instructions to the computer. In OOP, each object is capable of receiving messages, processing data, and sending messages to other objects. Each object can be viewed as an independent little machine with a distinct role or responsibility.”

Meanwhile, HaskellWiki offers this explanation of functional programming: “In functional programming, programs are executed by evaluating expressions, in contrast with imperative programming where programs are composed of statements which change global state when executed. Functional programming typically avoids using mutable state.

“Functional programming requires that functions are first-class, which means that they are treated like any other values and can be passed as arguments to other functions or be returned as a result of a function. Being first-class also means that it is possible to define and manipulate functions from within other functions.”

Some of the programming languages typically labeled “functional” include Clojure, OCaml, Erlang,  Haskell, Scala, and F#.

Here is how Michael Fogus defines functional programming:

“As a bare-bones introduction, functional programming can be described in a single sentence:

Functional programming is the use of functions that transform values into units of
abstraction, subsequently used to build software systems.

“This is a simplification bordering on libel,” he continues, “but it’s functional (ha!) for this early stage in the book. The library that I use as my medium of functional expression in JavaScript is Underscore, and for the most part, it adheres to this basic definition.”

(Underscore.js can be obtained from http://underscorejs.org and imported into “the applicable project directories.”)

Fogus refuses, in his text, “to create a false dichotomy and say that functional and object-oriented styles should stand in opposition.” Indeed, he notes that JavaScript supports both models and “systems can and should be composed of both models.”

He also points out that JavaScript can be used with other paradigms, including imperative programming, prototype-based object-oriented programming, and metaprogramming.

“In no way does this book represent even a modicum of original thinking regarding functional programming in JavaScript,” he states. Yet, it is a worthy effort.

It is well written, smoothly organized, and nicely illustrated with short code examples and helpful diagrams. And Fogus notes that JavaScript does have “[l]anguage oddities, unsafe features, and a sea of competing libraries” that raise concerns when it is selected for a project. Functional programming, he contends, can be one way to help ensure that JavaScript “can be not only safe, but also simple to understand and test, in addition to being proportionally scalable to the size of the code base.”

Here is the chapter lineup for Fogus’s 237-page book:

  • Chapter 1. Introducing Functional JavaScript
  • Chapter 2. First-Class Functions and Applicative Programming
  • Chapter 3. Variable Scope and Closures
  • Chapter 4. Higher-Order Functions
  • Chapter 5. Function-Building Functions
  • Chapter 6. Recursion
  • Chapter 7. Purity, Immutability, and Policies for Change
  • Chapter 8. Flow-Based Programming
  • Chapter 9. Programming without Class

Functional JavaScript is a winner on at least two counts: (1) as a how-to text for long-time JavaScript programmers wishing to learn more about functional programming; and (2) as a how-to text for long-time functional programmers desiring to learn more about JavaScript.

The book is not recommended for JavaScript newcomers who are still at the level of typing console.log(“The answer to everything in the universe is 42”). However, experienced beginners can learn from it, and so can those of us who just tinker with JavaScript periodically and use it mainly to work with Node.js, Backbone.js, Ember.js, CoffeeScript, HTML and other choices.

Si Dunn

The Modern Web: Multi-Device Web Development with HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript – #bookreview

The Modern Web
Multi-Device Web Development with HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript
Peter Gasston
(No Starch Press – Kindle, paperback)

After a quick first glance, you might look right past this book. You might assume its title, “The Modern Web,” simply introduces some kind of heavily footnoted, academic study of the Internet.

Not so, Web breath. In this case, it’s the subtitle that should grab your attention.

Whether you hope to go into web development, or you’re already there, Peter Gasston’s new book can help you get an improved grasp on three important, device-agnostic tools that will be essential to your work and career development. They are: HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript, that not-so-simple programming language that many new web specialists often try to avoid learning. (That’s because, typically, it’s easier, more fun and a bit less cryptic to work with HTML5 and CSS3.)

Also, Gasston notes, there have been big explosions in the number of libraries and frameworks that use JavaScript, further clouding a developer’s ability to know which ones he or she should learn next. (The author limits his coverage to four: jQuery, YepNope, Modernizr, and Mustache.)

Gasston’s well-written book zeroes in on the three “web technologies that can be used anywhere, from open websites to device-specific web apps.” And on all sorts of devices, ranging from tiny phones to tablet computers to wall-covering HDTVs.

And his teaching aim is to show you “modern coding methods and techniques that you can use to build websites across multiple devices or that are tailored to the single device class you’re targeting.”

By the way, “websites” is simply a shorthand term the author uses “to avoid repetition. The features you’ll learn from this book are relevant to websites, web applications, [and] packaged HTML hybrid applications–in short, anything that can use HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.”

Gasston also wants you to learn that “fast” is the main thing that matters to those who will use your site. “Your site needs to be fast–and feel fast–regardless of the device it’s being displayed on,” he emphasizes. “And fast means not only technical performance (which is incredibly important) but also the responsiveness of the interface and how easily users can navigate the site and find what they need to complete the task that brought them to you in the first place.”

His 243-page book contains many short, useful code examples and illustrations, and is excellent for developers who have at least a little bit of experience with HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript but aren’t sure where and how to focus their energies and attention for the rapidly changing career road ahead.

The Modern Web offers a well-organized introduction, plus 11 chapters:

  1. The Web Platform
  2. Structure and Semantics
  3. Device Responsive CSS
  4. New Approaches to CSS Layouts
  5. Modern JavaScript
  6. Device APIs
  7. Images and Graphics
  8. New Forms
  9. Multimedia
  10. Web Apps
  11. The Future

There also are two appendices: Browser Support as of March 2013 and Further Reading.

Peter Gasston has been a web developer for more than 12 years, and his previous book is The Book of CSS3.

He notes that “[t]he Web is constantly evolving, and book publishing means taking just a single snapshot of a moment. Some things will change; some will wither and be removed. I’ve tried to mitigate this by covering only technologies that are based on open standards rather than vendor-specific ones and that already have some level of implementation in browsers.”

He urges developers to stay alert to changing Web standards and to “be curious, be playful, keep on top of it all. He stresses: “There’s never been a more exciting time to work in web development, but you’ll need to put in an extra shift to really take advantage of it.”

Si Dunn

Getting Started with Mule Cloud Connect – To help sort out the chaos of Internet services – #bookreview

Getting Started with Mule Cloud Connect
Ryan Carter
(O’Reilly – paperback, Kindle)

In a digital world increasingly cluttered with Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) platforms, Open APIs, and social networks, complexity quickly can get out of hand.

“It all starts,” Ryan Carter writes in his new book, “with a simple API that publishes somebody’s status to Facebook, sends a Tweet, or updates a contact in Salesforce. As you start to integrate more and more of these external services with your applications, trying to identify the tasks that one might want to perform when you’re surrounded by SOAP, REST, JSON, XML, GETs, PUTs, POSTs, and DELETEs, can be a real challenge.”

Indeed. But never fear, Mule ESB can ride to your rescue and connect you quickly and easily to the cloud. At least, that’s the marketing claim.

Some truly big-name users, it should be noted, are adding credibility to Mule’s claimed capabilities and usefulness as an Open Source integration platform. They include Adobe, eBay, Hewlett-Packard, J.P. Morgan, T-Mobile, Ericsson, Southwest Airlines, and Nestle, to mention just a few.

Meanwhile, riding Mule to the cloud is the central focus of this compact (105 pages), well-written get-started guide. Its author, Ryan Carter, is both a specialist in integration and APIs and “an appointed Mule champion” who contributes regularly to the MuleSoft community.

“Mule,” Carter points out, “is an integration platform that allows developers to connect applications together quickly and easily, enabling them to exchange data regardless of the different technologies that the applications use. It is also at the core of CloudHub, an Integration Platform as a Service(IPaas). CloudHub allows you to integrate cross-cloud services, create new APIs on top of existing data sources, and integrate on-premise applications with cloud services.”

The book is structured so you start off by building a simple Mule application that will serve “as the base of our examples and introduce some core concepts for those unfamiliar with Mule.” Then Carter shows and illustrates how to “start taking advantage of Mule Cloud Connectors.” He includes numerous code examples, plus some screenshots and diagrams.

The book’s six chapters are:

  1. Getting Started
  2. Cloud Connectors
  3. OAuth Connectivity
  4. Configuration Management
  5. Real-Time Connectivity
  6. Custom Connectivity

Carter emphasizes: “Mule Cloud Connect offers a more maintainable way to work with APIs. Built on top of the Mule and CloudHub integration platforms, Cloud Connectors are service-specific clients that abstract away the complexities of transports and protocols. Many complex but common processes such as authorization and session management work without you having to write a single line of code. Although service-specific, Cloud Connectors all share a common and consistent interface to configure typical API tasks such as OAuth, WebHooks, and connection management. They remove the pain from working with multiple, individual client libraries.”

If Mule does not have a connector for a resource that you need, the book shows you how to create your own.

Getting Started with Mule Cloud Connect can get you started on a beneficial ride of  discovery, and it can take you onto the trail that leads to solutions.

— Si Dunn

JavaScript as Compilation Target: ClojureScript and Dart – #programming #bookreview

Despite its widespread success, JavaScript has a reputation for being a computer language with many flaws. Still, it is now everywhere on the planet, so it is here to stay, very likely for a long, long time.

Not surprisingly, several new languages have emerged that jump over some of JavaScript’s hurdles, offer improved capabilities, and also compile to optimized JavaScript code.

Two of these languages are the focus of noteworthy new “Up and Running” books from O’Reilly: ClojureScript: Up and Running and Dart: Up and Running.

Here are short reviews of each book:

ClojureScript: Up and Running
Stuart Sierra and Luke VanderHart
(O’Reilly, paperback, Kindle)

ClojureScript, the authors contend, “provides developers with a language that is more powerful than JavaScript, which can reach all the same places JavaScript can, with fewer of JavaScript’s shortcomings.”

The primary targets of ClojureScript are “web browser applications, but it is also applicable to any environment where JavaScript is the only programmable technology available,” they add.

“ClojureScript is more than Clojure syntax layered on top of JavaScript: it supports the full semantics of the Clojure language, including immutable data structures, lazy sequences, first-class functions, and macros,” they emphasize.

Their 100-page book focuses on how to use ClojureScript’s features, starting at the “Hello world” level and gradually advancing to “Development Process and Workflow” and “Integrating with Clojure.” (ClojureScript is designed for building client-side applications, but it can be merged with Clojure on the JVM to create client-server applications.)

Early in the book, they also describe how to compile a ClojureScript file to JavaScript and emit code “that is fully compatible with the Advanced Optimizations mode of the Google Closure Compiler.”

The two writers are Clojure/ClojureScript developers with a previous book to their credit.

ClojureScript: Up and Running is written well and appropriately illustrated with code samples, flow charts, and other diagrams. The authors recommend using the Leiningen build system for Clojure, plus the lein-cljsbuild plug-in for ClojureScript.

Their book is a smooth introduction to ClojureScript that requires no prior knowledge of Clojure. But you do need a basic working knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, CSS, and the Document Object Model (DOM).

#

Dart: Up and Running
Kathy Walrath and Seth Ladd
(O’Reilly, paperback, Kindle)

Google created Dart to be “an open-source, batteries-included developer platform for building structured HTML5 web apps,” the two authors note.

Dart provides not only a new language, but libraries, an editor, a virtual machine (VM), a browser that can run Dart apps natively, and a compiler to JavaScript.”

Indeed, Dart looks very similar to JavaScript and is “easy to learn,” the two writers state. “A wide range of developers can learn Dart quickly. It’s an object-oriented language with classes, single inheritance, lexical scope, top-level functions, and a familiar syntax. Most developers are up and running with Dart in just a few hours.”

The authors work at Google and note that some of the software engineers who helped develop the V8 JavaScript engine that is “responsible for much of Chrome’s speed” are now “working on the Dart project.”

Dart has been designed to scale from simple scripts all the way up to complex apps, and it can run on both the client and the server.

Those who choose to code with Dart are urged to download the open-source Dart Editor tool, because it also comes with a “Dart-to-JavaScript compiler and a version of Chromium (nicknamed Dartium) that includes the Dart VM.”

Since Dart is new, the writers also urge readers to keep an eye periodically on the Dart website and on their book’s GitHub site, where code can be downloaded and errors and corrections noted.

Dart: Up and Running is a well-structured, well-written how-to book, nicely fortified with short code examples and other illustrations. While the book appears very approachable and simple, it is not for complete beginners. You should have a basic working knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, CSS, and the Document Object Model (DOM).

If you are looking for a web development language that matches JavaScript’s dynamic nature but also addresses JavaScript’s sometimes-aggravating shortcomings, consider trying Dart—with this book in hand.

Si Dunn